In the years sine publication of the hrst edition of surgical approaches to the spine a revolution has taken place in spinal surgery spinal technology . Chapter 18 thoracic spine surgical approaches leonard k kibuule md harry n herkowitz md anatomy of anterior cervicothoracic spine the cervicothoracic junction . 1 what are the various surgical approaches to the anterior and posterior cervical spine a anterior o transoral approach o extra lateral retropharyngeal approaches. This course has been awarded 6 cpd points description this is a one day hands on cadaveric course that will cover commonly used surgical approaches to the cervical . The desire to expose the spine for surgery by anterior approaches at any level between the head and the sacrum is not new spinal pathology is often located anterior
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